Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land–or a building, usually residential–that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use - wikipedia
The international squatters' symbol - ikimedia
Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004 that there were one billion squatters globally. He forecasts there will be two billion by 2030 and three billion by 2050. Yet, according to Kesia Reeve, "squatting is largely absent from policy and academic debate and is rarely conceptualised, as a problem, as a symptom, or as a social or housing movement."
Squatting can be related to political movements, such as anarchist, autonomist, or socialist. It can be a means to conserve buildings or to provide housing.
In many of the world's poorer countries, there are extensive slums or shanty towns, typically built on the edges of major cities (City) and consisting almost entirely of self-constructed housing built without the landowner's permission. While these settlements may, in time, grow to become both legalised and indistinguishable from normal residential neighbourhoods, they start off as squats with minimal basic infrastructure. Thus, there is no sewage system (Sewage collection and disposal), drinking water must be bought from vendors or carried from a nearby tap, and if there is electricity, it is stolen from a passing cable.
Besides being residences, some squats are used as social centres (Social center) or host give-away shops, pirate radio stations or cafés. In Spanish-speaking (Spanish language) countries, squatters receive several names, such as ''okupas'' in Spain, Chile or Argentina (from the verb ''ocupar'' meaning "to occupy"), or ''paracaidistas'' in Mexico (meaning "parachuters", because they "parachute" themselves at unoccupied land).
Squatting by necessity is in itself a political issue, therefore also a "statement" or rather a 'response' to the political system causing it.<ref name="Housing and Social Policy"/> During the period of global recession and increased housing foreclosures in the 2000s, squatting became far more prevalent in Western, developed nations.Homesteaders in the Hood In some cases, need-based and politically motivated squatting go hand in hand. According to Dr. Kesia Reeve, who specialises in housing research, "in the context of adverse housing circumstances, limited housing opportunity and frustrated expectations, squatters effectively remove themselves from and defy the norms of traditional channels of housing consumption and tenure power relations, bypassing the 'rules' of welfare provision."<ref name="Housing and Social Policy"/>
Dutch sociologist Hans Pruijt separates types of squatters into five distinct categories:
# Deprivation based — i.e., homeless people squatting for housing need
# An alternative housing strategy — e.g., people unprepared to wait on municipal lists to be housed take direct action (as discussed in the preceding paragraph)
# Entrepreneurial — e.g., people breaking buildings to service the need of a community for cheap bars, clubs etc.
# Conservational — i.e., preserving monuments because the authorities have let them decay
# Political — e.g., activists squatting buildings as protests or to make social centres
In many countries, squatting is in itself a crime; in others, it is only seen as a civil conflict (private law) between the owner and the occupants. Property law and the state (State (polity)) have traditionally favored the property owner. However, in many cases where squatters had ''de facto'' ownership, laws have been changed to legitimize their status. Squatters often claim rights over the spaces they have squatted by virtue of occupation, rather than ownership; in this sense, squatting is similar to (and potentially a necessary condition of) adverse possession, by which a possessor of real property without title (Title (property)) may eventually gain legal title to the real property.
Anarchist (Anarchism) Colin Ward comments: "Squatting is the oldest mode of tenure in the world, and we are all descended from squatters. This is as true of the Queen (Elizabeth II) [of the United Kingdom] with her 176,000 acres (710 km<sup>2</sup>) as it is of the 54 percent of householders in Britain who are owner-occupiers. They are all the ultimate recipients of stolen land, for to regard our planet as a commodity offends every conceivable principle of natural rights."<ref>Ed. Wates and Wolmar (1980) ''Squatting: The Real Story'' (Bay Leaf Books) ISBN 0-9507259-0-0</ref>
Others have a different view. U.K. police official Sue Williams, for example, has stated that "Squatting is linked to Anti-Social Behaviour and can cause a great deal of nuisance and distress to local residents. In some cases there may also be criminal activities involved."[ Statement from Detective Chief Superintendent Sue Williams, Borough Commander and Chair of the Community Safety Partnership]
# Perceptions of squatting
The public attitude towards squatting varies, depending on legal aspects, socioeconomic conditions, and the type of housing occupied by squatters. In particular, while squatting of municipal buildings may be treated leniently, squatting of private property often leads to strong negative reaction on part of the public and authorities.Squatting: The need for shelter versus property rights Squatting, when done in a positive and progressive manner, can be viewed as a way to reduce crime and vandalism to vacant properties, depending on the squatters's ability and willingness to conform to the surrounding socioeconomic class of the community, which they reside. Moreover, squatters can contribute to the maintenance or upgradation of the cites that would otherwise be left unattended which would (and has) created abandoned, dilapitated and decaying neighborhoods within certain sections of moderately to highly urbanized cities (Big City) or boros (Borough); with one example being NYC's Lower Manhattan (Lower East Side) from roughly the 1970s to the post-9/11 (9/11) era of the New Millennium.Squatting: Defining Squatter Settlements
# Adverse possession
Adverse possession is a method of acquiring title to property through possession for a statutory period under certain conditions. Countries where this principle exists include England and the United States, based on common law. However, some non-common law jurisdictions have laws similar to adverse possession. For example, Louisiana has a legal doctrine called acquisitive prescription, which is derived from French law.
There are large squatter communities in Kenya, such as Kibera in Nairobi. A BBC News report described it as follows: "The first thing that hits you here is this rich stench of almost 1 million people living in this ditch - in mud huts, with no sewage pipes, no roads, no water, no toilet, in fact, with no services of any kind."Living amidst the rubbish of Kenya's slum
In South Africa, squatters tend to live in informal settlements or squatter camps on the outskirts of the larger cities, often but not always near townships (township (South Africa)). In 1994, when Nelson Mandela was elected President, it was estimated that of South Africa's 44 million inhabitants, 7.7 million lived in these settlements.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="old link was dead<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup> The number has grown rapidly in the post-apartheid era. Many buildings, particularly in the inner city of Johannesburg have also been occupied by squatters. Property owners or government authorities can usually evict squatters after following certain legal procedures including requesting a court order. In Durban, the city council routinely evicts without a court order in defiance of the law, and there has been sustained conflict between the city council and a shack dwellers' movement known as Abahlali baseMjondolo. There has been a number of similar conflicts between shack dwellers, some linked with the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign, and the city council in Cape Town. One of the most high-profile cases was the brutal evictions of squatters in the N2 Gateway homes in the suburb of Delft (Delft, Cape Town), where over 20 residents were shot, including a three-year-old child. There have been numerous complaints about the legality of the government's actions and, in particular, whether the ruling of the judge was unfair given his party affiliations and the highly politicized nature of the case.Western Cape Housing Crisis: Writings on Joe Slovo and Delft Many of the families are now squatting on Symphony Way, a main road in the township of Delft. The City of Cape Town has been threatening them with eviction since February 2008.
Street dwellers in Mumbai (left (thumb (Image:Street dwellers in Mumbai.jpeg)))
In Mumbai, there are an estimated 10 to 12 million inhabitants, and six million of them are squatters. The squatters live in a variety of ways. Some possess two- or three-story homes built out of brick and concrete which they have inhabited for years. Geeta Nagar is a squatter village based beside the Indian Navy compound at Colaba. Squatter Colony in Malad East has existed since 1962, and now, people living there pay a rent to the city council of 100 rupees a month. Dharavi is a community of one million squatters. The stores and factories situated there are mainly illegal and so are unregulated, but it is suggested that they do over $1 million in business every day.<ref>Pages 110-114 Neuwirth, R (2004) ''Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World'', Routledge ISBN 0-415-93319-6</ref>
Other squatters live in shacks, situated literally on a pavement next to the road, with very few possessions.
Activists such as Jockin Arputham are working for better living conditions for slum dwellers.
Many of Malaysia's squatters live on land owned by Keretapi Tanah Melayu as well as at construction sites.
Squatting is a major issue in the Philippines especially but not exclusively in urban areas of the Philippines. Squatting gained notice after World War II, when people built makeshift houses called "barong-barong" inside abandoned private land.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from March 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources.<nowiki/> (March 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
In the late 20th century, the Philippine government has made separate attempts over the years to transfer some squatters to low-cost housing projects, such as projects in Tondo (Tondo, Manila) (in the former Smokey Mountain landfill), Taguig (BLISS Housing Project), and Rodriguez (Rodriguez, Rizal), Rizal.
Philippine law, and society more generally, distinguishes between squatters who squat because of poverty and "professional squatters" who squat in hopes of getting a payment to leave the property. Republic Act No. 7279 - An Act to Provide for a Comprehensive and Continuing Urban Development and Housing Program, Establish the Mechanism for its Implementation, and for Other Purposes
# Sri Lanka
The National Property Administration, Ministry Of Finance (National Property Administration) website has an online system to report squatted lands.
Though eviction has reduced their visibility or numbers in urban areas, many squatters still occupy land near railroad tracks, under overpasses, and waterways. Commercial squatting is common in Thailand, where businesses temporarily seize nearby public real estate (such as sidewalks, roadsides, beaches, etc.) and roll out their enterprise, and at closing time they fold it in and lock it up, thus avoiding the extra cost of having to rent more property.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole paragraph<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
Squatter's symbol found in thumb (Málaga ([[Image:Graffitti con simbolo okupa malaga.jpg)), Spain]]
The ''Chien Rouge''(Red Dog) in thumb (Lausanne ([[Image:Chien-Rouge-p1020706.jpg)), a squat held in the old hospital]]
In many European countries, there are squatted houses used as residences and also larger squatted projects where people pursue social and cultural activities. Examples of the latter include an old leper (Leprosy) hospital outside Barcelona called Can Masdeu and a former military barracks called Metelkova in Slovenia.
Squats can be run on anarchist or communist principles, for example, Fabrika Yfanet (Fabrika Yfanet (Thessaloniki)), Villa Amalia (Villa Amalia (Athens)) in Greece, Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Austria (has legal status) or Blitz (Blitz (movement)) in Norway (has legal status). Young people squat buildings to use as concert venues for alternative types of music such as punk and hardcore. The eviction of one such place, Ungdomshuset, in March 2007 received international news coverage. Others have been legalised.
In England and Wales, squatting in a residential building became illegal in September 2012, with a maximum penalty of six months in jail, a £5,000 fine, or both.[ ]
In Italy, there is Bussana Vecchia (Bussana Vecchia, Liguria), a ghost town in Liguria which was abandoned in 1887 following an earthquake and subsequently squatted in the 1960s. In France, there is Collectif la vieille Valette, a self-supporting squat village which has been active since 1991.
There was a big squatting movement in the newly formed state of Austria (Republic of German-Austria) following the First World War. Famine was a significant problem for many people in Austria and the "Siedler" (settler) movement developed as these people tried to create shelter and a source of food for themselves.[ Otto Neurath: The Language of the Global Polis]
Christiania (Freetown Christiania) is an independent community of almost 900 people founded in 1971 on the site of an abandoned military zone. In Copenhagen, as in other European cities such as Berlin and Amsterdam, the squatter movement was large in the 1980s. It was a social movement, providing housing and alternative culture. A flashpoint came in 1986 with the Battle of Ryesgade.
Another flashpoint came in 2007 when Ungdomshuset was evicted. While not technically a squat until 14 December 2006, it was a social centre used by squatters and people involved in alternative culture more generally. After a year of protests, the city council donated a new building.Aktivister har overtaget nyt ungdomshus
Squatting is broadly an economic issue in France, particularly in Paris, one of the most expensive cities in Europe.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup> But whereas migrants without papers try not to draw the attention of the police, alternative and artists' squats break the news from the 1980s onwards. In the 1980s, Art-Cloche (from "clochard", i.e., tramp –- founded by Jean Starck and Nicolas Pawlowski) promoted "artistic occupation", organising festivals and creating a museum.
In the 1990s, a wider movement comes from eastern Europe: young European artists settle in East Berlin's abandoned buildings after the fall of the Wall. A few years later, back in their own countries, and notably in France, they began to occupy all kinds of places, from state-owned sites ("Lycee Diderot", where 300 artists worked for 2 years in so-called "Pôle Pi", dismantled by police in 1998), to institutional properties (Galerie Matignon, almost next door to Prime Minister's Hotel Matignon, and wealthy art galleries).Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
Around 2000, the artist's squats movement was exposed in the medias, and quite popular (as they chose to occupy empty public-owned buildings mainly, at a time when middle-class Parisians could not afford skyrocketing prices for renting a decent flat). "L'électron libre", a gorgeously ornamented building (in a raving psychedelic style) located in the core of the city (59 rue de Rivoli), and owned by a French Bank, was in 2001 the third most visited place for contemporary art (40,000 visitors a year, according to the French Ministry for Culture). Closed a few years ago, it was bought back by the socialist town council and reopened in 2010. Another famous place (:fr:Les Frigos) was legalized and integrated into the cultural politics of the town council.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
These cases illustrate the quest of most of artist's squat for agreements with buildings owners, be it for a few years ("bail precaire" i.e. "temporary lease"). A handful of mayors in France chose to experiment this form of support to living art (one of the best known is La Belle-de-Mai in Marseille), and Paris is coming to it, cautiously. The move may be too slow: in June 2010, Court ordered the eviction of Paris older artist's squat,In Paris, Art Fills the Void a renowned place for close-to-free concerts (5,000 groups in 10 years, from all countries), and where the state-owned Culture TV-channel ARTE itself went to record live sessions: and there was nothing the mayor could do, the tenant being a private investor.
In the 1970s, squatting in West German cities led to "a self-confident urban counterculture with its own infrastructure of newspapers, self-managed collectives and housing cooperatives, feminist groups, and so on, which was prepared to intervene in local and broader politics".<ref>Mayer M ''The Career of Urban Social Movements in West Germany'' in eds Fisher R and Kling J ''Urban Affairs Annual Review'' volume 41 London (1993)</ref> The Autonomen movement protected squats against eviction and participated in radical direct action.
After the German reunification, many buildings were vacated due to the demise of former state-run enterprises and migration to the western parts of Germany, some of which were then occupied by squatters. In Berlin, the now-legalised squats are in desirable areas such as Mitte and Prenzlauer Berg. Before the reunification, squats in Berlin were mostly located in former West Berlin's borough of Kreuzberg. The squats were mainly for residential and social use. Squatting became known by the term ''instandbesetzen'', from ''instandsetzen'' ("renovating") and ''besetzen'' ("occupying").<ref name="pruijt" />
Despite being illegal, squats exist in many of the larger cities. Examples are Au (Au (building)) in Frankfurt and Hafenstraße and Rote Flora in Hamburg, though the last open squat of Berlin, Brunnenstraße183, was evicted in November 2009.
The Free nationalists movement (Freie Nationale Strukturen) was born from the "right-wing" squattings of early 1990s.<ref name=brunila>Ei ole yhtä äärioikeistoa - keitä Suomen vastarintaliike kutsui Helsinkiin? , Mika Brunila, Suomen Kuvalehti, 21.10.2011</ref>
In Greece most squats are organized by Anarchists, the oldest one being Lelas Karagianni from late 1980s. Also squatted in Athens are K* Vox, Papoutsadiko, Sinialo, Istos, Botanikos Kipos, Agros, Villa Zografou, Patmou and Karavia, Zaimi 11, Epavli Kouvelou, Ano Kato, Pikpa and Strouga. An example of a more modern squat is Prapopoulou squat, which is well known internationally.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
There are eight anarchist squatted buildings in Thessaloniki, notably Fabrika Yfanet, a 19.000 m2 area and over 100 years old textile factory, other squats are Terra Incognita, Sxolio, Libertatia, Mundo Nuevo, Orfanotrofeio, 111 etc. There are also squats in Chania, Volos, Heraklio, Ioannina, Agrinio, Kavala, Mitilini, Corfu and other cities.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
Many anarchist squats in Greece have an abandoned garden nearby which the occupants often re-purpose as a free garden to grow organic (organic food) vegetables.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
Most anarchist or autonomist (Autonomism) squats in Greece maintain a blog or website to post their news, and they often also have an internet forum and e-mail address. Community-oriented squats often organize music gigs (mostly Punk (Punk rock) and hip hop ) or movie screenings, usually announced on Athens Indymedia (Indymedia) or Kinimatorama.netkinimatorama.net in addition to the squat's blog. A few squats experiment with DIY (do it yourself) renewable energy generation, such as wind turbines, but most of them are depended on the main grid or have no power (there have been attempts by the power and water companies to cut their access to these resources). Sometimes anarchist or autonomist academics or writers of international fame are invited to give talks at squats, and very often free food is served to the community. Usually every squat's blog also lists links to the blogs of most other squats.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
Most politically oriented squats in Greece hold regular (usually weekly) open meetings where everyone is allowed to attend and see how work at the squat is organized and how the responsibilities are shared among the squat's team. Anarchist and autonomist squats in Greece engage with the local community by hosting cultural events, political talks, printing posters and announcements, or going out to the local community's square and holding events there, such as movie screenings, music gigs, talks, or offering free food, books, clothes, or children's toys.
Anarchist and autonomist squats in Greece and people visiting them often face state persecution, including arrests or police attacks, in addition to violent attacks by the far-right.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
Starting from December 2012, Greek Police initiated extensive raids in a number of squats, arresting and charging with offences all illegal occupants (mostly Anarchists). Notable squats like Villa Amalias (Villa Amalia (Athens)) and "Patision & Skaramaga" in Athens, Parartima, Maragopoulio and Nikolaou Gkizi 33 in Patras, Antibiosi in Ioannina, Orfanotrofio in Thessaloniki and other squats have been evicted. Greek Authorities have stated that they will continue the raids until all squats have been evicted,in.gr but they didn't manage to make their threat a reality, because of the strong resistance against squat evictions.
Iceland, on the other hand, does not have a long tradition of squatting, but homeless people have been occupying abandoned houses for the same reasons as in other countries. The number of homeless people in Iceland is not high, so it has not received much attention since slums do not exist. The first political squat was done on Vatnsstigur 4 in Reykjavik on the 9th of April 2009, 6 months after a complete economic collapse due to bankers that bought all the banks 4 years earlier. This was done by a group of people with anarchists ideas stating that ''"capitalism allows banks to own a house and leave them intentionally empty so that they will rot on their own and be replaced with a shopping center, using money that didn't exist and left the debt to the people that many did not participate in the loan-spree advocated by the banks before depression."'' ''"We will not tolerate that the rich are getting richer and the society getting less cultural."''<ref>hustaka.org</ref> In 5 days the targeted house was shaped up, a free-store was opened, paper and music publishing had started, and there was support from the neighbours who were excited to get some "life in the street". The house was gutted by between 50-60 riot police officers 5 days later and arrested the 15 squatters after they had barricaded themselves inside and resisted for over 2 hours. People associated with the independent media were also arrested.
In the following weeks, the free shop was reopened several times. The first instance of this was on 6 May 2009 in solidarity with the Rozbrat squat in Poland. In July 2009 the house was put on fire.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
The second squat used as a social space was founded by a group of graffiti artists that put up an art-exhibition on 7 July 2009.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
The third political squat was on Skólavörðustígur also squatted in July 2009. It was an anarchist social center until October 2009 when three young kids set it on fire.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
There have been a few other political, low profile squats in Reykjavík since, for example Bræðraborgarstígur 31 which was squatted by few anarchist girls for almost two years.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
The exact legal position of squatting in Ireland is ambiguous and the mechanisms for removing squatters from properties varies from case to case, sometimes going through the judicial process, other times not. Trespass and occupation of a property is not illegal, but as a definitive process for dealing with squatters does not exist, unlawful evictions do occur,- News Three men sentenced over forced eviction for landlord sometimes with the support of the Garda Siochana (Irish Police).- News Grangegorman resists eviction However certain 'squatters rights' do exist and can be invoked in the form of adverse possession. An occupant is entitled to legal possession of the title provided they are in continuous and uninterrupted occupation of the property for 12 years.Squatters' rights to be reviewed - Property, Unsorted To claim adverse possession the occupant must register an intent to claim the property with the land registry (Land Registry) which can, at its discretion, contact the title holder.
Squatting has no major tradition in Ireland (Republic of Ireland), arguably in part due to strong property rights which favour the owner of the property. It has largely been confined to major cities but with the construction of Ghost estates across the country there has also been a rise in occupations of residential spaces in rural areas.Squatter told he can stay in NAMA ghost estate home - National News There have been major housing movements and periods of squatting in Ireland, including the activities of the Dublin (Dublin Housing Action Committee) and Derry Housing Action Committees of the late 60's and early 70's. Each had a militant campaign which participated in dozens or hundreds of actions and protests in demand of better housing conditions.- Story The hidden history of squatting in Ireland
In 2003 activists calling themselves ‘Autonomous Community Spaces’ entered ‘Disco Disco’ in Dublin's Parnell Square to turn the space in a social centre. They were violently evicted 24 hours later.Pictures of attack on Squat - Indymedia Ireland From 2003 to 2004 the Magpie Squat was a residential space which housed activists in Dublin's Upper Leeson Street.Squatting in Dublin : Housing is a Right not a Luxury It is also where the first meeting was held for the opening of what would become Dublin's first autonomos social centre Seomra Spraoi.
In 2010 activists from Occupy Cork squatted a Nama Building in Cork city with the intention of using it as a community resource centre. It was vacated shortly after the occupation.Cork City Centre: Community Resource Center | Official Webpage In 2012 activists from Occupy Belfast squatted a Bank of Ireland building in Belfast city centre and used it as a social space.Occupy protesters take over former bank in Belfast The occupation lasted several months before it was evicted.
Squatting has seen a recent surge in Dublin city with frequent occupations of spaces. With squatting becoming more public, Dublin hosted the 2014 'International Squatter Convergence', previously held in cities such as Dijon, Berlin and Brighton. Squatting also became popularised by the successful neighbourhood resistance to an attempted eviction of a large community used squatted space in Grangegorman in Dublin city in 2015.- News Squatter Supporters hurt in Grangegorman stand off The news of the eviction attempt and eventual successful resistance spread across social media- News Grangegorman squatters welcome "victory" as they resist eviction and international news.- News Residents resist eviction, clash with police in Dublin suburb The squatted complex enjoyed widespread support in the area and was also publicly supported by the city's Lord Mayor, Christy Burke- News Lord Mayor Praises Squatters Work and by Irish Times journalist Una Mullally.- News The Grangegorman Squat
Since 2015 the building which once housed Neary's Hotel on Parnell St in Dublin's north inner city, was occupied and renamed The Barricade Inn by squatters.- News Barricade Inn
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''See also Self-managed social centers in Italy.''
In Italy, squatting has no legal basis, but there are many squats used as social centres. The first occupations of abandoned buildings began in 1968 with the left-wing movements Lotta Continua and Potere Operaio. Out of the breakup of these two movements was born Autonomia Operaia, which was composed of a Marxist-Leninist and Maoist wing and also an anarchist and more libertarian one. These squats had Marxist-Leninist (but also Stalinist and Maoist) ideals and came from the left wing of Autonomia. The militants of the Italian armed struggle (the New Red Brigades) were connected to these squats.[ ]
The disobedience squats (see Tute Bianche and Ya Basta Association), which are much more common in Italy than the other squats, integrate communist ideology and all its ideals (class war (class conflict), anti-imperialism, anti-capitalism) with the Zapatista Army of National Liberation ideals and part of the ideology of taking the thoughts of Antonio Negri. Then there are antagonist social centers which are inspired by the Marxism-Leninism of the 1970s: workerism and autonomism. There are also anarchist squats.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole paragraph<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
A lot of Italian self-governed squats are known as C.S.O.A. (''Centro Sociale Occupato Autogestito'', "self-governing squatted social centers") and include: Leoncavallo, Cox 18, Cascina Autogestita Torchiera, La Fucina, Vittoria, Transiti 28, Panetteria Occupata, Cantiere, Bottiglieria Occupata, Ardita Pizzeria del Popolo, Lambretta, Z.A.M Zona Autonoma Milanese, Spazio di Mutuo Soccorso and Latteria Occupata in Milan, C.S.A. Baraonda in Segrate, F.O.A. Boccaccio in Monza, Askatasuna, Gabrio and C.S.A. Murazzi in Turin, Buridda, Pinelli, Terra Di Nessuno, Aut Aut 357 and Zapata in Genoa, Rivolta in Mestre, Gramigna and Pedro in Padua, La Chimica in Verona, Bruno in Trento, Dordoni and Kavarna in Cremona, Magazzino 47 in Brescia, C.S.A. Pacì Paciana and Kascina Autogestita Popolare in Bergamo, Barattolo in Pavia, Guernika and La Scintilla in Modena, Mario Lupo and SPA Sovescio in Parma, Teatro Polivalente Occupato, Lazzaretto, XM24, Livello 57 and Laboratorio Crash! in Bologna, CPA Firenze Sud and Next Emerson in Florence, Ex-Mattatoio in Perugia, Mezza Canaja in Senigallia, Kontatto in Ancona, TNT in Jesi, Godzilla in Livorno, Rebeldia and Spazio Antagonista Newroz in Pisa, Brancaleone, Corto Circuito, Forte Prenestino, La Strada, Acrobax, Spartaco, Horus, Macchia Rossa and Villaggio Globale in Rome, Officina 99, SKA, Insurgencia, Cinema Astra Occupato, Zer081, Lido Pola, Villa Medusa, Scugnizzo Liberato and Mensa Occupata in Naples, Experia and Auro in Catania, Ex-Karcere in Palermo, Cartella in Reggio Calabria, Rialzo in Cosenza, Fiumara in Catanzaro, Cloro Rosso in Taranto and many others.
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Anarchist squats include: Villa Vegan Squat, Ripa dei Malfattori, Corvaccio Squat and Rosa Nera in Milan, TeLOS in Saronno, El Paso, Asilo Occupato, Barocchio Squat and Mezcal Squat in Turin, Libera in Modena, Al Confino Squat in Cesena, Giustiniani 19 Squat and Mainasso Occupato in Genova, La Riottosa Squat, Villa Panico and Cecco Rivolta in Florence, Bencivenga Squat, L38 Laurentino Squat, Ateneo Occupato, ZK Squatt and Torre Maura Occupata in Rome, Spazio Anarchico Occupato Gaetano Bresci in Catania, and others.
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Many famous Italian Oi!, ska, hardcore punk and rock (Rock music) bands, such as Los Fastidios, Klasse Kriminale, Banda Bassotti, Negazione, Wretched (Wretched (band)), Raw Power (Raw Power (band)), and Cripple Bastards, tour in the areas of these social centers (Self-managed social centers in Italy). Recently, several far-right squats have also emerged, the best known being the fascist<ref name=guardian>Italy's fascists stay true to Mussolini's ideology , The Guardian, 6 November 2011</ref> CasaPound.
Squatting in Moldova is pretty new, as it started with Centro 73 in Chişinău in September 2010. This project is working and starts to be known in media.multimedia | centro 73 chişinău A second project of squatting in Chişinău in the old Turkish embassy (57, Alexei Mateevici street), called Ada Kaleh, was evicted by police in November 2010.
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The Dutch use the term ''krakers'' to refer to people who squat houses with the aim of living in them (as opposed to people who break into buildings for the purpose of vandalism or theft).<ref name="pruijt" />
Until 2010, when squatting was criminalised, a building could be used legally by someone who needed to squat if it was empty and not in use for twelve months, and the owner had no pressing need to use it (such as a rental contract starting in the next month). The only illegal aspect was forcing an entry, if that was necessary. When a building was squatted, it was normal to send the owner a letter and to invite the police to inspect the squat. The police checked whether the place was indeed lived in by the squatter. In legal terms, this means there must be a bed, a chair, a table and a working lock on the door which the squatter can open and close.
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After 2010, squatting still continues in many cities. There is often a ''kraakspreekuur'' (squatters' consultation hour), at which people planning to squat could get advice from experienced squatters. In Amsterdam, where the squatting community is still large, there are four ''kraakspreekuur'' sessions in different areas of the city, and so-called "wild" squatting (squatting a building without the help of the local group) is not encouraged.<ref name="autogenerated6">Wiegand E. (2004) ''Trespass at Will: Squatting as Direct Action, Human Right & Justified Theft'' (LiP Magazine) </ref>
There are still many residential squats in Dutch cities. There are also some squats in the countryside such as a squatted village called Ruigoord near Amsterdam. Fort Pannerden (a military fort built in 1869) was evicted on November 8, 2006, by a massive police operation which used military machinery and cost one million euros.Politie hervat ontruiming Fort Pannerden The squatters then re-squatted the fort on November 26 and have since made a deal with the local council which owns the fort.Fort Pannerden voorlopig niet ontruimd Fort Pannerden blijft voorlopig The deal states that the squatters will receive a large piece of land near the fort to start a community in the rural area in between the city of Nijmegen and Arnhem. In exchange, the fort was handed over to local authorities, who will turn it into a museum, with help provided by the squatters that used to live in Fort Pannerden.
In the past, squats sometimes went through a process of legalisation. This is the case with the Poortgebouw in Rotterdam, which was squatted in 1980. In 1982, the inhabitants agreed to pay rent to the city council. The ORKZ (Oude Rooms-Katholieke Ziekenhuis):nl:Oude Rooms Katholieke Ziekenhuis in Groningen, squatted in 1979, is an old Roman Catholic hospital, which was declared legal in the 1980s.
Well-known squats include the OT301, Vrankrijk and the Binnenpret in Amsterdam, Anarres in Dordrecht (evicted in 2009), Het Slaakhuis in Rotterdam and the Landbouwbelang and Villa Vendex in Maastricht. De Blauwe Aanslag in The Hague was evicted in 2003.
Squatting gained a legal basis in the Netherlands in 1971, when the Supreme Court ruled that the concept of domestic peace (''huisvrede'') (which means a house cannot be entered without the permission of the current user) also applied to squatters. Since then, the owner of the building must take the squatters to court (or take illegal action) in order to evict them. A law was passed in 1994 which made it illegal to squat a building which was empty for less than one year.Is the institutionalization of urban movements inevitable? A comparison of the opportunities for sustained squatting in New York City and Amsterdam
There were several moves to ban squatting in the past. In 1978, the Council of Churches launched a protest which scotched the idea. In June 2006, two ministers from the Dutch government (Politics of the Netherlands) (Sybilla Dekker and Piet Hein Donner) proposed a plan to make squatting illegal.Kraken wordt strafbaar Other ministers, such as Alexander Pechtold, were not in favor of this plan. Representatives of the four largest Dutch cities wrote a letter stating that it would not be in their interest to ban squatting.Grote steden tegen verbod op kraken Squatters nationwide made banners and hung them on their squats in protest.Landelijke spandoekenaktie kraakverbod
On June 1, 2010, the squatting ban (Netherlands Squatting Ban) was accepted by both houses of Parliament. Squatting in the Netherlands became illegal and punishable when a decree was sent out that the law would be enforced from the first of October.
Eerste Kamer neemt antikraakwet aan - Binnenland - de Volkskrant In protest, squatters in Amsterdam had occupied a former fire department the week before the law began (returning it to the owners control on 30 September) and a riot occurred on 1 October when the police blocked a protest and led a horse charge upon it.Indymedia Netherlands Squat Ban Riot In Nijmegen (on 2 October), there was also a riot.whatever.squat.net Squatters demo in Nijmegen Following legal challenges, on October 28, 2011, the Supreme Court of the Netherlands decided that the eviction of a squat can only occur after an intervention of a judge.
Rozbrat squat in right (thumb (Poznań ([[Image:Rozbrat rowerownia.jpg)))]]
The oldest squat in Poland, Rozbrat , was created in 1994 in Poznań. Other squats are widespread across the country: Poznań (Magadan), (Od:Zysk ), Wrocław (Era Kromera - evicted and closed , Centrum Reanimacji Kultury , Wagenburg Breslau ), Warsaw (Syrena , Przychodnia ), Kraków (Wielicka, Carandiru), Gdynia (Brovary Hills), Gliwice (Krzyk), Częstochowa (Elektromadonna), Białystok (DeCentrum ), Grudziądz (Szach), Sosnowiec (M9), Gdańsk (NKS 3-Jan) and Ruda Śląska (Berza ).
Gradually it was substituted by high-rise blocks (often built quickly and poorly).
It was revived in the mid-1980s during the La Movida Madrileña, under the name of the ''okupa'' (an unofficial spelling applied to ''ocupación'') movement, when thousands of illegal squatted buildings were legalized. Influenced by the British Levellers, the movement's popularity rose again during the 1990s, once more due to a housing crisis, this time related to the 1992 Summer Olympics and the concomitant urban regeneration. Property speculation (speculation#Some side effects) and house price inflation continue to catalyze ''okupa'' activism.The 'success' of Barcelona
Famous ''okupas'' squat near right (thumb (Parc Güell ([[Image:ParcGuellOkupas.jpg))), overlooking Barcelona—the ''Bloques Fantasmas'' close to kasa de la Muntanya]]
Related to the anarchist movement (Anarchism in Spain), ''okupas'' support the ideal of Autogestion (Workers' self-management) and create social centers, such as Patio Maravillas in Madrid, which carry out various grassroots activities. The ''okupa'' movement represents a highly politicized form of squatting, so much so that participants often claim they live in squats as a form of political protest first and foremost.CASA Participants 2005 The movement is involved in various other social struggles, including the alter-globalization movement. In 1996, during José María Aznar's presidency, the first specific legislation against squatting was passed and became the prelude to many squat evictions. In the barrio of Lavapiés in Madrid, the Eskalera Karakola was a feminist (Feminism) self-managed squat, which was active from 1996 to 2005 and participated in the nextGENDERation network.nextGENDERation network Other examples are the Escuela Popular de Prosperidad (La Prospe) o Minuesa.
As of 2007, there were approximately 200 occupied houses in Barcelona. At least 45 of these, as Infousurpa, a collective event calendar, mentions, are used as social and cultural centers—so- called "open houses".<ref>''Infousurpa – Butlleti setmanal de contr@informació des del 1996.'' Nr. 486, 11 to 17 July 2007 (collective, weekly updated event calendar of 45 occupied houses in Barcelona; hanging out in occupied houses)</ref> A number of popular rock (Rock music) groups (Musical ensemble) have come out of this kind of venue, such as Sin Dios, Extremoduro, Kolumna Durruti, Refugio and Platero y Tu in Madrid and Ojos de Brujo and Gadjo in Barcelona. In 2014, the attempts to evict the long-running social cente of Can Vies provoked major riots.Squat demolition called off after four nights of rioting in Barcelona
The Basque Country (Basque Country (greater region)) is another area where a high number of houses have been occupied. There are at least 46 squats, or ''gaztetxes (:eu:Gaztetxe)'' ("youth's houses" in Basque (Basque (language))). During the 1980s, a house was occupied by squatters in virtually every town, with the booming Basque punk rock (Basque Radical Rock) thriving on the squatting movement, as it provided the badly needed premises for concerts, exhibitions, and other events. During the last 10 years, at least 15 ''gaztetxes'' have closed down, often following protests and clashes with the police.<ref></ref> However, new gaztetxes are opening, such as Kortxoenea in Donostia-San Sebastian (occupied in 2010), Putzuzulo in Zarautz (occupied in 2005), Kontrakantxa in Hernani (Hernani, Spain) (occupied in 2006), or the gaztetxe of Zumaia. The best known gaztetxe currently is from Gasteiz. Squatting has always shown close connections to the Basque independence movement. In the French Basque Country, there are at least five other squat houses.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
# Chabolismo (shanty towns)
Parallelly there has been a not-ideologized current of shanty towns around big cities.
As the Spanish nomads were transferred to public housing, the shanty towns became inhabited by poor immigrants, including Moroccans and Romanian Romas.
The Cañada Real Galiana<ref name="El País">''¿Ilegales para siempre?.'' , Javier Lafuente, El País, 19 March 2008.</ref><ref name="El Mundo 20040603">''De camino de ovejas a foco de marginalidad'' , José Luis Martín, El Mundo (El Mundo (Spain)), 3 June 2004</ref><ref name="El Mundo 20071018">''La Cañada Real, foco de delincuencia y venta de droga'' , El Mundo, 18/10/2007.</ref><ref name="Público">''Unos 200 vecinos de la Cañada Real Galiana protestan contra el desalojo de ayer con una marcha por la A-3.'' , Público, 19/10/2007.</ref> is an example.
As such it is public domain (public domain (land)) and cannot be subjected to other incompatible uses.
However a section near Madrid has been squatted, becoming a linear city of about 40,000 people and 15 km in length.
The status of the neighborhoods varies along the way.
Some areas are drug markets, others are settled by Spanish workers residing there since 20 years ago, and others have families of recently arrived immigrants.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
Image:occupied_house_in_barcelona_1.jpg|''Kasa de la Muntanya'', Barcelona-Vallcarca
Image:Barcelona_okupa_Can_Vies.jpg|''C.S.A. Can Vies'', Barcelona-Sants
Image:Barcelona_okupa_ptgeConradi.jpg|''Casa sense nom'' and ''Ateneu popular de l'Eixample'', Barcelona-La Sagrada Familia
Image:Barcelona_okupa_Ruina_Amalia.jpg|''Ruïna Amàlia'', Barcelona
The RHINO (RHINO (squat)) ("'''R'''etour des '''H'''abitants dans les '''I'''mmeubles '''N'''on-'''O'''ccupés"; in English, "Return of Inhabitants to Non-Occupied Buildings") was a 19-year-long squat in Geneva. It occupied two buildings on the Boulevard des Philosophes, a few blocks away from the main campus of the University of Geneva. The RHINO organisation often faced legal troubles, and Geneva police evicted the inhabitants on July 23, 2007.Eviction of squatters from
According to Fırat Seymen from Arkitera Architecture Center, Occupation of Gezi Park had the attributions of a commune. He cites the name "GeziKondu " already used in Gezi Forums to discuss about possible squats.
There are three squats in İstanbul: two of them are in Kadıköy; Yeldeğirmeni and Caferağa, one is in Beşiktaş. The last one, in Beşiktaş, occupied in March 18, 2014 and named after a 15 years old boy who shot with a tear gas rifle, stayed in coma for 269 days and died, Berkin Elvan Student House.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole sentence<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
# United Kingdom
The "Square Occupied Social Centre" a now-evicted squat in thumb (left (Russell Square ([[Image:London Social Centre Russell Square squat 1 20060329.jpg)))]]
In England, squatting has a long historical tradition. The BBC states that squatting was "a big issue in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and again for the Diggers in the 17th Century [who] were peasants who cultivated waste and common land, claiming it as their rightful due" and that squatting was a necessity after the Second World War when so many were homeless.<ref name=BBC1>''Squatters: Who are they and why do they squat?'' , BBC</ref> The BBC also reported in 2011 that the British government estimated that there were "20,000 squatters in the UK" and "650,000 empty properties".<ref name=BBC1/>
Effective 1 September 2012, under Section 144 of the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012, squatting in residential property was criminalised by the Government (United Kingdom coalition government (2010–present)).<ref name=squattingillegal>Squatting set to become a criminal offence </ref><ref>Ministry of Justice Circular No. 2012/04 - Offence of Squatting In a Residential Building </ref> But squatting in a commercial building is still not a criminal offence.
Squatting is a criminal offence in Scotland, punishable by a fine or even imprisonment, see Trespass (Scotland) Act 1865. The owner or lawful occupier of the property has the right to evict squatters without notice or applying to the court for an eviction order, although when evicting, they cannot do anything that would break the law, for example, use violence.Squatting
In 2010, a representative of the UK Bailiff Company claimed that the number of people squatting in Wales was at its highest for 40 years.Rise in squatters puts more Welsh homeowners at risk of huge eviction bills The high number of businesses failing in urban Wales has led to squatting becoming a growing issue in large cities like Swansea and Cardiff.[ ][ ] Experts predicted that squatting will continue to increase in Wales as a result of the recession, claiming; ''"the majority [of squatters] are forced into the lifestyle by financial pressures."'' Based on the internal database of UK Bailiff Company, there were 100 cases of squatting in 2009, the highest for 40 years, following trends estimated by the Advisory Service for Squatters that squatting has doubled in England and Wales since 1995.Rise in squatters puts more Welsh homeowners at risk of huge eviction bills
As with England, from 1 September 2012, squatting in a residential building was made a criminal offence subject to arrest, fine and imprisonment.[ ] In December 2012 Cardiff Squatters Network was formed, to network together squatters city-wide, and host "skill-share" workshops on squatting legally in commercial buildings.[ ][ ]
# North America
# United States
the United States (Squatting in the United States)
International context</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;">
* <div style="padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em; ">Universal Declaration of<br/>Human Rights (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)</div>
* <div style="padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em; ">International Covenant on Economic,<br/>Social and Cultural Rights (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)</div></td>
Legal acquisition</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;">
Principles</th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
* Gift (Gift (law))</td>
Programs</th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
* Urban homesteading (Urban homesteading (housing))
* 1202a Nuisance Abatement Program
* Low-income housing (Affordable housing)</td>
Frameworks</th></tr><tr><td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em">
* Community land trust</td>
Housing and justice</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;">
* <div style="padding:0.2em 0.4em; line-height:1.2em; ">Association of Community<br/>Organizations for Reform Now (Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now)</div>
* Take Back the Land</td>
Notable squats</th></tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding:0.2em 0 0.6em;">
In the United States, squatting laws vary from state to state and city to city. For the most part, it is rarely tolerated to any degree for long, particularly in cities.<ref></ref> There have been a few exceptions, notably in 2002 when the New York City administration agreed to turn over eleven squatted buildings in the Lower East Side to an established non-profit group, on the condition that the apartments would later be turned over to the tenants as low-income housing cooperatives.<ref name=Voice></ref>
Community organizations have helped the homeless to take over vacant buildings not only as a place to live but also a part of larger campaign to shine a light on inequity in housing and advocate change in housing and land issues. Some of these include the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, Take Back the Land and Homes not Jails.
Squatters can be young people living in punk houses, low-income or homeless people, street gang members, or artists. Recently there have been increasing numbers of people squatting foreclosed homes.<ref name=Anti></ref><ref name=oregon></ref> There are also reports of people resquatting their own foreclosed homes.<ref name=fore></ref>
In Canada, there are two systems to register the ownership of land. Under the land title system, squatter rights, formally known as adverse possession, were abolished. However, under the registry system, these rights have been preserved. If a person occupies land for the required period of time as set out in provincial limitation acts and, during that time, no legal action is taken to evict or in trespass, the ownership in the land goes from the legal owner to the squatter.<ref>Adverse possession </ref>
The Frances Street Squats in Vancouver were a row of six buildings squatted for nine months in 1990. They were evicted in a large operation and a film was subsequently made, called ''The Beat of Frances Street''.
In recent years there have been a number of public squats which have brought together the two main contemporary reasons for squatting - homelessness and activism. Examples are the Lafontaine squat in Overdale, a district of Montréal (2001),<ref>Hanes, A. 'Squatters still going strong: Overdale activists vow never to leave new homes at city-owned Centre Prefontaine' in ''The Montréal Gazette'' August 23, 2001</ref> the Woodward’s Squat in Vancouver (2002), the Infirmary Squat in Halifax (2002), the Pope Squat in Toronto (2002), the Seven Year Squat in Ottawa (2002), the Water Street Squat in Peterborough (2003) and the North Star hotel in Vancouver (2006). These were squats organised by anti-poverty groups which tended to have a short life expectancy.<ref name="Squatting and the City">Squatting and the City </ref>
The Woodward's building was an derelict department store which had stood empty for nine years. After being evicted from the building, two hundred squatters set up a tent city on the pavement outside.<ref>Vancouver's Woodwards squatters must go by Monday </ref> The action is credited with putting in motion the eventual redevelopment of the building.<ref>Ward, D. 'Anti-Olympic protesters get their game on' ''The Vancouver Sun'' January 29, 2010</ref>
The Peterborough Coalition Against Poverty (PCAP) publicly squatted 1130 Water Street, a building which stood empty after a fire. The group offered to repair the place and return it to its use as low-income housing. City officials agreed to the repairs and then the City Council voted to demolish the building. The cost of demolition was $8,900 and the cost of repairs had been projected to be $6,900.<ref name="Squatting and the City"/>
The North Star hotel was temporarily squatted as a protest against emptiness by the Vancouver Anti-Poverty Committee.
In 2011, the 'Occupy Toronto squat team' squatted a basement at 238 Queen Street West and offered to take on a lease for 99 cents a year. They were evicted after eight hours.<ref>Sweetman, M. 'Occupying housing from the Pope Squat to Occupy Toronto' December 19, 2011</ref>
In Mexico, squatters are known as ''paracaidistas'' (that is, "paratroopers", because they "drop" themselves mostly at unoccupied lands), and it is a common practice in large cities. Since the most valuable real property is located near the downtowns of the cities, the ''paracaidistas'' usually establish slums at unoccupied lands at the outskirts of the cities. Since Mexican laws establish that an individual may take legal possession of a property after five to twenty years of peaceful occupation, many ''paracaidistas'' establish themselves with the hope that the legal owner will not discover them and expel them before five years. Large extensions of many Mexican cities were established originally as squats (for example, Nezahualcoyotl (Nezahualcoyotl, Mexico State), in Mexico City).
Squatting has also been used with political purposes, with more of one political parties promising existing squatters to legalize their situation if they support their candidates in the elections; or sometimes with the purpose to serve as human obstacles for another party, occupying the space that was going to be used for constructing public buildings or parks.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="Reliable source needed for the whole paragraph<nowiki/> (November 2015)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
# South America
Around many South American cities there are shanty towns. Sometimes, the authorities tear the houses down, but often, the squatters simply rebuild again. The houses are built out of whatever material can be scavenged from the local area or bought cheaply. As time goes by, the squatters start to form communities and become more established. The houses are rebuilt piece by piece with more durable materials. In some cases, a deal is reached with the authorities and connections for sewage, drinking water, cable television and electricity are made.
In Peru, the name given to the squatter settlements is ''pueblos jóvenes''. In Colombia they are called ''invasiones'' (as in "invading a property", as squatting can be related to a building or an empty lot), in Venezuela they are also known as ''invasiones'', in Argentina the term used is ''villa miseria'', in Chile they are called ''Tomas'', in Venezuela the term "Ranchos" is used, and in Uruguay, ''cantegriles''.
A favela in Rio de Janeiro (right (thumb (Image:RiodeJaneiro-Favela.jpg)))
In Brazil, some of the squatter communities are called favelas, and a famous example is Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro, estimated to be home of 100,000 people. Favelas are mostly inhabited by the poorest strata, and usually lack much infrastructure and public services, but in some cases, already have reached the structure needed for a city. They are equivalent to slums or shanty towns, and typically occupy unused land (instead of unused or abandoned buildings). There were 25 million people living in favelas all over Brazil, as of 2004.<ref name="neuwirth" />
In São Paulo the largest favela is Heliópolis, with over 100,000 inhabitants. However, its occupied area has been officially recognized as a regular neighborhood of the city. There are also a number of squatter buildings in the inner city, the most famous of which was a 22-story building called Prestes Maia (Prestes Maia (building)), whose inhabitants were finally evicted by the police in 2007 after a long conflict with the city administration. Inspired by this movement and increasing property speculation and gentrification have also emerged various occupations in buildings and unoccupied areas in big cities. (see Homeless Workers' Movement)
There are also rural squatter movements in Brazil, such as the Landless Workers' Movement, which has an estimated 1.5 million members.
In the 19th century, a squatter was a person who occupied a large tract of Crown land in order to graze livestock - the phenomenon is referred to in the song Waltzing Matilda. At first, this was done illegally, and later under license. From the 1820s they were part of the establishment, hence the term ''Squattocracy''. This type of squatting is covered in greater detail at Squatting (pastoral).
In more recent times, there have been squats in the major cities. It would be possible for squatters to be charged with criminal trespass under the Enclosed Lands Protection Act, but mainly, squatters are simply evicted when they are discovered. As in the United Kingdom, there is the law of adverse possession, but it is seldom used.
In Sydney, streets of terraced houses in areas such as the Rocks (The Rocks, New South Wales) and Potts Point (Potts Point, New South Wales) were squatted to prevent their demolition in the 1970s. The Glebe estate in Glebe, New South Wales was squatted in the 1960s and 1970s, and had an extensive influx of squatters in the 1980s. Also during the 1970s and 1980s, extensive parts of Woolloomooloo and Darlinghurst were also squatted, along corridors of houses bought to make way for new road works. Examples of these include "The Compound" in Darlinghurst and along Palmer Street in Woolloomooloo. Punks, political activists, musicians and artists also started squatting in "The Gunnery", a former Navy warehouse and training facility, in Woolloomooloo, during the early-to-mid-1980s. This squat, a large warehouse with several unusual spaces able to be used as theatres or other venues (thanks to its former use by the Navy) became a critical site for the development of arts and music in Sydney in the mid to late 1980s, with independent musical and art events being held there regularly. It is now an arts centre.State Library of NSW Search - Manuscripts, Oral History, and Pictures Catalogue
The artists squatting empty buildings on Broadway owned by South Sydney City Council were evicted in 2001, a few months after the 2000 Olympics.SquatSpace History - Broadway Squats
The Midnight Star was a squatted theatre used as a social centre, hosting music events, a cafe, a library, a free internet space and a Food Not Bombs kitchen. It was evicted in December 2002 following its use as a convergence centre for protests against the November World Trade Organisation talks.SquatSpace History - Midnight Star
A five-year-old squat was peacefully evicted in March 2008, when an office block in Balmain was demolished to make way for a park. The council voted to allow the squatters to stay in the building, which they called Iceland, until the plans for demolition were in place. One of the squatters said, "About 20 people have lived here over the years and it's been a place for band rehearsals, art projects, people practising dance routines, bike workshops. Squatting gives you a chance to think about things other than how you are going to pay the rent and ways to contribute to the world."Creagh, Sunanda ''Squatters out as bulldozer start engines''
The Squatfest film festival began in the Broadway squats in 2001. It is both a celebration of squatting and a protest against the corporate capitalism of the Tropfest film festival in Sydney. Every year, a site is occupied and films screened. The location is announced hours before screening begins.squatfest
There were estimated to be more than 120,000 unoccupied houses in Sydney in 2011.The art of setting up home for diddly-squat
Melbourne squats are usually located in the inner suburbs, like Footscray, St. Kilda and Coburg. They tend to be houses that are waiting for demolition. A well-known squat in Carlton was organised by international students in 2008. A Squatter's Handbook was produced by activists in 1993, 2001 and 2010.Melb Squatters Guide
From 1995 to 2009 in Brisbane the capital of Queensland, a number of old buildings and dilapidated back alleys were used as squats within the vicinity of Brisbane City's Queen Street Mall. There are roughly 30-60 long-term homeless persons in the Brisbane CBD at any one time, who typically use squats as a means of shelter. Irregular intervals can bring 30-60+ short term displaced people.
# Social centers
In Europe, it is common for buildings to be squatted to be used as social centres (Social center). Cafés, bars, libraries, free shops, swaps shops and gyms have all been created, with many squats also holding parties (Free party) and concerts. Social centers are often a combination of many things that happen in one space with the aim of creating a space for people to meet in a non-commercial setting, whether it be for a party, political workshop, to see a film, have a drink or have breakfast. There are many squatted social centers around the world, but they exist mainly in countries where squatting is legal. Examples include Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Austria, the RampART Social Centre in England, OT301 in the Netherlands and Ungdomshuset in Denmark (evicted on March 1, 2007, and demolished four days later).
# Notable and well known examples
''Please only add squatted social centres which already have their own wikipedia page''
Barcelona (A squat in Viladecans (thumb (Barcelona, Spain ([[Image:Spain.Catalonia.Viladecans.Casa.Okupada.JPG))))]]
The ''Chien Rouge'' in thumb (Lausanne ([[Image:Chien-Rouge-p1020708.jpg)), a squat held in the old hospital]]
! Notable Squats
* Villa Zografou (Villa zografou)(Zografou,Athens)
* Mundo Nuevo (Thessaloniki)
* Orfanotrofeio (Ano Toumpa, Thessaloniki)
* 111 (Thessaloniki)
* Social centers category on Italian Wikipedia (w:it:Categoria:Centri sociali)
* HCZ, Eindhoven
* Can Masdeu, Barcelona
* Can Vies, Barcelona
* Eskalera Karakola, Madrid
* Patio Maravillas, Madrid
* La Casika (:es:La Casika), Móstoles, Madrid
* 491 Gallery (opened 2001), London.
* Bank of Ideas, London.
* Bonnington Square, London.
* Centro Iberico, London.
* Eel Pie Island Commune (Eel Pie Island#Eel Pie Island Commune) (opened 1969, burned down 1971), London.
* Frestonia, London.
* Invisible Circus (The Invisible Circus (circus troupe)), Bristol
* Kew Bridge Ecovillage (opened 2009, evicted 2010), London.
* Medina House, Brighton.
* M11 link road protest, London.
* RampART Social Centre (opened 2004, evicted 2009), London.
* Spike Surplus Scheme (opened 1998, evicted 2009), London.
* St Agnes Place (opened 1969, evicted 2005), London.
* Titnore Wood near Worthing.
* Zzyzx Mineral Springs and Health Spa (Zzyzx, California)
* Centro Financiero Confinanzas (a squatted skyscraper)
# Well-known squatters
''Please only add squatters who already have their own wikipedia page''
* Black Donnellys, James Donnelly squatted on the southeastern quarter of Lot 18, Concession 6 (also known as the Roman Line), Biddulph Township, Canada West.Category:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources.<nowiki/> (January 2009)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
* Robert Harrill, known as "The Fort Fisher Hermit", set up a simple home in an abandoned World War II era bunker near the Cape Fear River, NC, along a salt marsh.
* Wally Hope, visionary and free thinker.
* Olive Morris squatter, feminist, black nationalist.
* Jim Radford, folk singer, peace campaigner and Direct Action organiser was a leading figure, along with Ron Bailey, in the formation of several Family Squatting Associations in London in the 1960s and early 1970s.<ref>Bailey, Ron; The Squatters (1973) Penguin:UK ISBN 0140523006</ref>
* Randy Quaid, arrested in 2010 for squatting in a home he had previously owned<ref name="quaid"></ref>
* Curtis Howe Springer, found guilty of the charge of squatting on federal land<ref></ref>
* Monckton Synnot, prominent squatter in Victoria, AustraliaCategory:All articles with unsourced statementsCategory:Articles with unsourced statements from January 2009<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources.<nowiki/> (January 2009)">citation needed</span> (Wikipedia:Citation needed)</i>]</sup>
* Stza, fronted several skacore bands in the New York City area, the best known being Choking Victim and Leftöver CrackA not so brief history of No Commercial Value, Chocking Victim, & Leftover Crack (In the words of Stza himself)
* Gerrard Winstanley, English Protestant religious reformer and political activist during the Protectorate of Oliver CromwellGerard Winstanley: 17th Century Communist at Kingston (Christopher Hill, 1996)
# Urban homesteading
Urban homesteading is a form of self-help housing where abandoned private properties in urban areas are taken over by the building’s usually poor residents.
Sometimes this takes the form of squatting, which is not legal under many jurisdictions. Urban homesteading - in which residents rehabilitate the apartments through their own labor - may depart from squatting in some ways, especially philosophically.<ref name=Barry>
While both groups may work initially with no permits, architectural plans or help from the government, self-help housing aims to manage the buildings cooperatively, and residents may work collaboratively with a non-profit organization or city government to legally obtain ownership of the building.<ref name=Barry/>
In some cases, urban homesteading is an organic phenomenon that evolves as a grassroots strategy of residents for dealing with a lack of affordable housing, or a sizable existence of abandoned, depressed, neglected or foreclosed housing stock. Some cities have used it as a solution to creating affordable housing.<ref name=Slate>
# See also
* Gecekondu Squatting public land in Turkey.
# Further reading
* Bailey, Ron; ''The Squatters'' (1973) Penguin:UK ISBN 0140523006
* Corr, A. (1999) ''No Trespassing! Squatting, Rent Strikes and Land Struggles Worldwide'' South End Press ISBN 0-89608-595-3
* ''Cracking The Movement'' (1994) - Amsterdam squatter history and the movement's relation to the media. Also available online
* ''Cracking The System'' (2008) - A zine about squats and social centres in Europe inspired by the april2008 initiative. Also available online .
* Curtis, Helen and Sanderson, Mimi; The Unsung Sixties; 2004; Whiting & Birch: ISBN 1861770448
* Dobbz, H. ''Nine-Tenths of the Law: Property and Resistance in the United States'' AK Press 978-184935118-8
* Katsiaficas, G. (1999) ''The Subversion of Politics: European Autonomous Social Movements and the Decolonization of Everyday Life'' Humanity Books ISBN 1-57392-441-5 Also available online
* Squatting Europe Kollective (2013). ''Squatting in Europe: Radical Spaces Urban, Struggles'' Minor Compositions ISBN 978-1-57027-257-8 Also available as a free PDF
* Tobocman, Seth. ''War in the Neighborhood'' – a graphic novel about squatting on New York City's Lower East Side in the 1980s by ''World War 3 Illustrated'' cartoonist and editor Tobocman, published by Autonomedia
* Waterhouse, Richard (2005). ''The Vision Splendid: A Social and Cultural History of Rural Australia'', Fremantle, Curtain University Books